Research evidence
The Benefits and Impacts of Pedestrian Improvements and Road Closures

Impact of Traffic Removal on Congestion and Surrounding Streets

Impact of Raising Urban Densities - Why Traffic Removal is Necessary
The Economic Benefits of Improving Pedestrian Environments

  • Boarnet, M. G., Burinskiy, E., Deadrick, L., Gullen, D., & Ryu, N. (2017). The economic benefits of vehicle miles traveled (VMT)-reducing placemaking: Synthesizing a new view National Centre for Sustainable Transportation.

  • Sustrans (2003) Traffic restraint and retail vitality.

  • Sandahl, J. and Lindh, C. (1995) Impact of improving the attractiveness of town centres. Transport Policy. 2 (1), pp.51-56.  Abstract (full text available through payment or library subscription)

  • Whitehead, T., Simmonds, D. and Preston, J. (2006) The effect of urban quality improvements on economic activity. Journal of Environmental Management. 80 (1), pp.1-12.  Abstract (full text available through payment or library subscription).

  • Hass-Klau, C. (1993) Impact of pedestrianization and traffic calming on retailing: A review of the evidence from Germany and the UK.  Transport Policy. 1 (1), pp. 21-31.  Abstract (full text available through payment or library subscription

Evidence from British Cities

Evidence from European Cities

‘Shared Space’ (where cars and people mingle)



Header photo of East Street in Brighton (c) Ian Shergold.

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