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Research evidence
The Benefits and Impacts of Pedestrian Improvements and Road Closures

Impact of Traffic Removal on Congestion and Surrounding Streets

Impact of Raising Urban Densities - Why Traffic Removal is Necessary
The Economic Benefits of Improving Pedestrian Environments

  • Boarnet, M. G., Burinskiy, E., Deadrick, L., Gullen, D., & Ryu, N. (2017). The economic benefits of vehicle miles traveled (VMT)-reducing placemaking: Synthesizing a new view National Centre for Sustainable Transportation.

  • Sustrans (2003) Traffic restraint and retail vitality.

  • Sandahl, J. and Lindh, C. (1995) Impact of improving the attractiveness of town centres. Transport Policy. 2 (1), pp.51-56.  Abstract (full text available through payment or library subscription)

  • Whitehead, T., Simmonds, D. and Preston, J. (2006) The effect of urban quality improvements on economic activity. Journal of Environmental Management. 80 (1), pp.1-12.  Abstract (full text available through payment or library subscription).

  • Hass-Klau, C. (1993) Impact of pedestrianization and traffic calming on retailing: A review of the evidence from Germany and the UK.  Transport Policy. 1 (1), pp. 21-31.  Abstract (full text available through payment or library subscription

Evidence from British Cities

Evidence from European Cities

‘Shared Space’ (where cars and people mingle)



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